Researchers describe a novel form of gene regulation that is altered in bladder cancer, leading to the boosting of a gene pathway that helps the cancer cells survive during rapid growth. The work focuses on a 22-base fragment of transfer RNA, tRF-3b, which is modified by the enzyme complex TRMT6/61A. In bladder cancer, the levels of TRMT6/61A — a methyltransferase — are elevated. The methylation modification prevents tRF-3bs from silencing the expression of various genes in the unfolded protein response pathway in the cancer cells.
Home Science Methylation of tRNA-derived fragments regulates gene-silencing activity in bladder cancer